Sydney Institute of Criminology
CrimNet is an electronic criminal justice information network, sponsored by the Sydney Institute of Criminology. It aims to fulfil the need for a means of regular and instant communication between criminal justice professionals, practitioners, academics and students in Australia and overseas.
New Virtual Reality App Helps Users to Understand Solitary Confinement
As The Guardian's first step into the field of virtual reality, 6x9 is a mobile app which allows users to visualise themselves in a standard US solitary confinement prison cell. This interactive app allows the user to explore the cell through their phone screen, or can also be viewed on the computer as a 360 degree video. The video outlines the scale of solitary confinement use in the United States, the reasons for inmates being given solitary confinement (from swearing to gang membership), the extraordinary lengths of time that some offenders spend in these cells, and the effects that even short stays can have on the brain.

There are currently around 80,000 people in the United States in solitary confinement, being limited to these cells for 22-24 hours per day. They can experience this punishment for days, months, or even decades. Seven people who have experienced solitary confinement have written articles accompanying the app, which can be found here.

The app can be downloaded for free on iPhone or Android phones. Further information on how to use the virtual reality app can be found here. If you do not own a smartphone, a 360 degree video can be viewed on YouTube, which also allows you to explore your cell by dragging your cursor around the screen.
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Upcoming Events
The Thirteenth Meeting of the International Association of Genocide Scholars
Date: 9-13 July 2017
Location: University of Queensland, Brisbane

The International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) will hold its thirteenth meeting this year, jointly hosted by the T.C. Beirne School of Law and the Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect.

The conference theme is “Justice and the Prevention of Genocide”.

Nearly seven decades after the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the hopes embedded in that document remain largely unfulfilled. The theme of the 2017 IAGS conference revisits the two core components of the Convention: justice for acts of genocide, and prevention of future genocides.

While the conference theme will concentrate on these twin themes of justice and prevention, the 2017 IAGS conference is open to any whose work connects with the study of genocide. We aim to bring together scholars, activists, artists and survivors to examine genocidal violence from a wide range of disciplines and approaches.

Attendance at the conference is open to all interested academics, professionals and students, but presentations can only be made by members of IAGS. To join IAGS, please visit the association’s website.

Registrations for the conference are now open! Early bird prices close 14 April 2017. The speaker registration deadline is 25 June 2017.

For more information, please visit the event website.

Responding to the Foreign Fighters Phenomenon: Is Legislation the Answer?
Date: 1:00pm-2:00pm. 27 March 2017
Location: UNSW Law Staff Common Room, Level 2, Law Building (F8), UNSW Kensington Campus

The emergence of Islamic State has created new security concerns for Western nations, particularly those which have experienced a recent (and significant) upsurge in domestic terrorist activities inspired by the organisation. Whilst the nature of the terrorist threat might have changed since the early days after 9/11, domestic responses to that threat – in the form of new anti-terrorism laws – have not demonstrated a significant evolution in thinking about counter-terrorism. Many of the measures introduced in Australia and the UK since the emergence of the foreign fighters’ crisis have simply updated pre-existing regimes, such as control orders in Australia and Terrorism Prevention and Investigation Measures (TPIMs) in the UK. Others have been more innovative, such as the Australian offence of entering a declared terrorist zone. What all the responses have in common, however, is that they think inside the proverbial box; that is, Parliaments continue to be of the view that enacting new and increasingly intrusive legislation is the best way of resolving the threat of terrorism. This paper evaluates whether the new legislation introduced in Australia and the UK is, in fact, necessary, appropriate and effective at dealing with the foreign fighters’ phenomenon.

This event features speakers Dr Nicola McGarrity (UNSW Law) and Dr Jessie Blackbourn (University of Oxford). A sandwich lunch will be provided. Any questions regarding this event may be directed to Luke McNamara at luke.mcnamara@unsw.edu.au.
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Recent Publications
Violent extremism in Australia: An overview

By Shandon Harris-Hogan

Since Federation, Australia has not been immune to violent extremism, although the scale of such violence is less evident than in many countries throughout the world.

While such acts of violence within Australia have been intermittent, around 150 have occurred since World War II, though most have not been successful. Further, Australian nationals have also died overseas, such as during the 9/11 attacks in New York and the bombing of the Sari Club in Bali in 2002. These incidents have sensitised the public to extremism.

Currently, the nation is responding to a heightened risk of violent extremism. It is therefore timely to describe the nature of violent extremism that has manifested in Australia – ethno-nationalist, political and most recently, jihadist.

This paper examines the nature of extremist violence that has impacted on Australia, and highlights changes in the risk and the nature of violent extremism over time.

The full article can be found online here.

Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males: Differences Between Adolescent Sex Offenders and Adolescent Non-Sex Offenders
By E. McCuish, J. Cale and R. Corrado

Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

The article can be found online here.
Regulatory Theory: Foundations and Applications
Edited by Peter Drahos

Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

To purchase a print copy or download the e-book, please follow the link.
A prospective study of offending patterns of youth homicide offenders into adulthood: An examination of offending trajectories and the crime mix post homicide
By E. McCuish, J. Cale and R. Corrado
Although youth homicide offenders (YHOs) are portrayed as a group that warrants considerable attention from the justice system because of their high likelihood of future offending, little is known about this group’s offending trajectories and the nature of posthomicide offenses in adulthood. These questions were investigated using a sample of male and female YHOs (n = 26), violent YHOs (n = 358), and nonviolent YHOs (n =139), all of whom were followed prospectively into adulthood. First, the prevalence of adult recidivism did not vary across the three groups. Second, YHOs were more frequent offenders prior to their homicide offense than after their homicide offense, and when they did offend posthomicide, it was typically a nonserious crime. Third, YHOs did not differ from other offenders in their association to a specific offending trajectory. These findings are discussed in the context of assessment and treatment of serious and violent youth.

This article can be found online here.
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Job Advertisements
Chief Executive Officer - Women's Justice Network, Sydney
The Women’s Justice Network (WJN; formerly Women in Prison Advocacy Network, or WIPAN) is a small but growing grass roots not-for-profit organisation. 

They seek a CEO who shares our passion for supporting women who have lived experience of the criminal justice system to turn their lives around when they get out of jail—and help at-risk young women avoid ever being sent there. This is a great time to join as they build on demonstrated success to broaden their range of services and grow their client numbers. If you have the right mix of compassion, commitment, vision, effectiveness, and managerial talent, this could be the perfect job for you.

For this role, you will also need experience of social and / or community work, of leadership and management of staff, and of overseeing programs, finances and funding agreements. They especially encourage applications from women from Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander backgrounds, and women who have lived experience of the criminal justice system or who have worked with women or girls who have such experience.

Applications close on the 27th of March. For more details, please follow the link.
Lawyer - Justice Connect, Melbourne
This is an opportunity to join one of Australia’s most successful public interest and pro bono law organisations. Justice Connect is a not-for-profit organisation with a vision of a world that is fair and just; where rights are respected and advanced, laws are fairer, and systems are more accessible and accountable Justice Connect provides access to justice through pro bono legal services to people experiencing disadvantage and the community organisations that support them. They also address injustice through law reform, policy work and legal education.

Not-for-profit Law is Justice Connect’s specialist service providing free and low cost legal assistance to not-for-profit community organisations. They ‘help the helpers' by providing tailored legal information, advice and training. By relieving the burden of legal issues, these organisations can better focus their time and energy on achieving their mission - whether that's supporting vulnerable people, delivering community services, enhancing diversity or bringing together the community.

The Not-for-profit Law team is seeking a passionate lawyer who will provide legal advice and information to not-for- profit organisations, oversee legal projects and manage relationships with key stakeholders, and facilitate pro bono referrals to Justice Connect member law firms. The role has opportunities for the delivery of legal education and training; developing legal information resources and involvement in policy and law reform activities. If you are a lawyer with two or more years post-admission experience, have experience in areas of law relevant to not-for-profit community organisations, and are passionate about improving access to legal help for not-for-profit organisations, this is an exciting opportunity to join a vibrant, committed and highly-respected team.

Applications close on the 28th of March. For more information, please follow the link.
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